Questions to Ponder:

1. Describe the economic, medical, scientific, ecological, and aesthetic, recreational, and ethical significance of wild species. Define biophilia. Summarize your position toward protection of different species.

2. Describe the general process of extinction. Compare past extinctions to present extinctions. Start with E. O. Wilson's estimates for habitat destruction and loss of biodiversity. Calculate a range of estimations of biodiversity loss based on high and low assumptions.

3. Distinguish among local extinction, ecological extinction, and biological extinction. Distinguish between threatened and endangered species. List nine characteristics that make species extinction prone.

4. List three root causes of extinction of wildlife. List eight human activities which directly increase the wildlife extinction rate. Summarize the condition of the world's fisheries and the causes of those conditions.

5. Explain how bioinformatics is being used to help protect wild species.

6. State and briefly describe the most far-reaching international treaty to protect wildlife. List four strategies that have been used recently to weaken the Endangered Species Act. List three recommendations for strengthening the Endangered Species Act. State three guidelines that conservation biologists would use to set determine "priority species."

7. Assess the advantages and disadvantages of using wildlife refuges, gene banks, botanical gardens, and zoos to protect wildlife.

8. Describe how wildlife populations can be managed by manipulating the successional stage of the habitat and by sport hunting. Evaluate whose interests are generally the most influential in determining wildlife management priorities.

9. Describe freshwater and marine fishery management and how it can be improved. Analyze the lessons to be learned from the decline of the whaling industry.

Key Terms (Terms are listed in the same font styles as they appear in the text.)

adaptive radiations (p. 566)

bioinformatics (p. 582)

domesticated species

early successional plant species (p. 589)

endangered species (p. 563)

endemic species (p. 572)

flyways (p. 590)

game species

habitat fragmentation (p. 573)

intrinsic value (p. 569)

instrumental value

keystone species (p. 567)

late successional plant species (p. 589)

maximum sustained yield (p. 588)

midsuccessional plant species (p. 589)

minimum dynamic area (MDA) (p. 567)

minimum viable population (MVP) (p. 566)

nonnative species (p. 574)

population viability analysis (PVA) (p. 566)

rare species

threatened (vulnerable) species (p. 563)

utilitarian value (p. 569)

wild species (p. 589)

wildlife management (p. 588)

wildlife resources