Chapter 10 Concepts

1. Briefly describe the layers of the Earth's interior. Describe the internal and external Earth processes responsible for forming Earth's landscape. Be sure to distinguish three different tectonic plate boundaries and the geologic features often found at each. Explain how this knowledge is significant for understanding mineral deposits and evolution.

2. Distinguish between internal and external geologic processes. Discuss how these processes affect human activities and natural ecosystems.

3. List and define three broad classes of rock. Briefly describe the rock cycle and indicate interrelationships among these classes.

4. Describe how earthquakes are caused. Describe how the severity of earthquakes are measured. Describe how losses can be reduced. Describe what causes a volcano. Describe how prediction of volcanic activity has improved.

5. Define soil horizon. Briefly describe six soil layers. Using Figure 10-15 on p. 223 in the text, compare soil profiles of five important soil types.

6. Describe a fertile soil. In doing so, be sure to refer to soil texture, porosity, loam, and acidity.

7. Describe the problems of soil erosion and desertification. Describe both world and U.S. situations, and explain why most people are unaware of this problem.

8. Describe the problems of salinization and waterlogging of soils and how they can be controlled.

9. Define soil conservation. List nine ways to approach the problem of soil erosion. Be sure to distinguish between conventional-tillage and conservation-tillage farming. Describe a plan to maintain soil fertility. Be sure to distinguish between organic and inorganic fertilizers.

Vocabulary to Master!

agroforestry

alley cropping

compost

conservation-tillage farming

contour farming

conventional-tillage farming

core

crop rotation

crust

desertification

earthquake

erosion

humus

igneous rock

infiltration

leaching

loams

mantle

metamorphic rock

permeability

plate techtonics

porosity

rock cycle

sedimentary rock

soil

soil conservation

soil horizons

soil profile

soil structure

soil texture

strip cropping