Chapter 13

Food, Soil Conservation, and Pest Management


1.      Summarize the state of global food production. Define malnutrition and undernutrition, and overnutrition. Indicate how many people on Earth suffer from these problems and where these problems are most likely to occur.  List six steps proposed by UNICEF to deal with malnutrition and undernutrition. Describe a strategy to reduce overnutrition. 


2.      List four major types of agriculture. Compare the energy sources, environmental impacts, yields, and sustainability of traditional and industrial agriculture.


3.      Define interplanting and explain its advantages.  List and briefly describe four types of interplanting commonly used by traditional farmers.


4.      Describe the problems of soil erosion and desertification. Describe both world and U.S. situations, and explain why most people are unaware of this problem.


5.      Describe the problems of salinization and waterlogging of soils and how they can be controlled.


6.      Define soil conservation. List nine ways to approach the problem of soil erosion. Be sure to distinguish between conventional-tillage and conservation-tillage farming. Describe a plan to maintain soil fertility. Be sure to distinguish between organic and inorganic fertilizers.


7.      Evaluate the green revolution. What were its successes? Its failures? Summarize the benefits and problems of livestock production over the history of agriculture.


8.      Summarize environmental impacts from agriculture.


9.      Summarize food distribution problems. Describe the possibilities of increasing world food production by increasing crop yields, cultivating more land, and using unconventional foods and perennial crops.


10.    Discuss the use of genetic engineering techniques to improve the human food supply.


11.    Discuss problems associated with the production of livestock on rangeland.


12.    Describe trends in the world fish catch since 1950. Assess the potential for increasing the annual fish catch and use of aquaculture. Distinguish between fish farming and fish ranching.


13.    Assess the pros and cons of agricultural subsidies and international food relief. Describe strategies that you feel would be most sustainable.


14.    List the five types of pesticides and what they are used to treat. 


15.    List the five major classes of pesticides.  Tell if each is broad spectrum or narrow spectrum; state its degree of persistence; give two examples; and tell if each undergoes bioaccumulation or is biologically magnified.

16.    Give seven reasons to use pesticides. List five characteristics of the ideal pesticide.


17.    Describe the consequences of relying heavily on pesticides. Describe the pesticide treadmill. Be sure to describe biological magnification. Briefly describe the threat of pesticides to wildlife and human health.


18.    Name the U.S. law that controls pesticide regulation. Give three reasons why this law is considered the weakest and most poorly enforced of the environmental laws. Summarize how the 1996 Food Quality Protection Act extends this law.


19.    List and briefly describe nine alternative pest management strategies.


20.    Define integrated pest management. Analyze the pros and cons of using IPM. List six steps which could be taken to help promote IPM.


21.    Define sustainable agriculture. Summarize how the United States could move toward creating a more sustainable agricultural system.


Key Terms  (Terms are listed in the same font style as they appear in the text.)

agroforestry (p. 277)

alley cropping (p. 277)

animal manure (p. 283)

Aquaculture (p. 292)

chronic undernutrition (p. 271)

commercial inorganic fertilizer (p. 283)

compost (p. 283)

conservation-tillage farming (p. 282)

contour farming (p. 282)

crop rotation (p. 283)

desertification  (p. 279)

famine (p. 273)

feedlot (p. 276)

fish-farming (p. 292)

fish-ranching (p. 292)

fishery (p. 291)

food security (p. 271)

fungicides (p. 295)

green manure (p. 283)

green revolution (p. 283)

gully erosion (p. 278)

herbicides (p. 294)

high-input agriculture (p. 274)

hunger (p. 271)

industrialized agriculture (p. 274)

insecticides (p. 294)

integrated pest management (IPM) (p. 300)

intercropping (p. 277)

interplanting (p. 277)

malnutrition (p. 271)

micronutrients (p. 271)

monoculture (p. 283)

organic farming (p. 301)

organic fertilizer (p. 283)

overnutrition (p. 273)

pest (p. 294)

pesticides (p. 294)

plantation agriculture (p. 274)

polyculture (p. 277)

polyvarietal cultivation (p. 277)

salinization (p. 281)

sheet erosion (p. 278)

soil conservation (p. 282)

soil erosion (p. 278)

strip cropping (p. 282)

sustainable agriculture (p. 301)

terracing (p. 282)

traditional intensive agriculture (p. 277)

traditional subsistence agriculture (p. 277)

waterlogging (p. 281)

windbreaks (p. 282)