Chapter 5

Climate and Terrestrial Biodiversity

Objectives

1. Distinguish between weather and climate. Summarize how warm fronts, cold fronts, high-pressure air masses, and low-pressure air masses affect weather.

2. Describe at least five different factors that contribute to global air-circulation patterns.

3. Describe how ocean currents generally redistribute heat.

4. Define greenhouse effect. Name greenhouse gases. State the significance of the greenhouse effect.

5. Describe the general effects of the following microclimates: windward and leeward sides of a mountain, forests, cities.

6. Describe how climate affects the distribution of plant life on Earth. Draw connections between biomes and the following plants, which are particularly adapted for different biomes: succulent plants, broadleaf evergreen plants, broadleaf deciduous plants, coniferous evergreen plants.

7. Compare the climate and adaptations of plants and animals in deserts, grasslands, and forests. Describe the distinctive qualities of a chaparral ecosystem. Be sure to distinguish among the three major kinds of forests.

8. Compare the biodiversity and stratification in the three major kinds of forests.

9. Describe how a mountain ecosystem is like an "island of biodiversity."

 

Key Terms (Terms appear in the same font as they appear in the text.)

biomes (p. 106)

broadleaf deciduous trees (p. 119)

broadleafevergreen plants(p. 117)

climate (p. 101)

coniferous evergreen trees (p. 120)

elevation (p. 101)

forest (p. 117)

grasslands (p. 111)

greenhouse effect (p. 104)

greenhouse gases (p. 104)

latitude (p. 101)

monsoons (p. 105)

permafrost (p. 114)

succulent plants (p. 108)

weather (p. 101)