CH 8: Concepts & Vocabulary

1. Define ecological niche. Distinguish between condition and resource; fundamental niche and realized niche. List the factors that determine the realized niche.

2. Distinguish among the following roles played by species and give one example of each: native species, nonnative species, indicator species, keystone species. Explain why these labels are important.

The following questions deal with how different species can interact with each other if they have activities or resource needs in common:

3. interspecific competition: Distinguish between interference competition and exploitation competition. Summarize the competitive exclusion principle. List two strategies species use to reduce competition.

4. predation: List two strategies that predators use to capture their prey. List at least five strategies that prey use to defend themselves against predators.

5. symbiosis: Define symbiosis & distinguish among three forms of symbiotic relationships and give one example of each: parasitism, mutualism, and commensalism.

6. Define succession. Distinguish between primary and secondary succession. List four categories of successional species and give one example of each. List three factors that affect how succession occurs.

7. Summarize contributions of disturbances (such as fire) to your understanding of succession. Evaluate the intermediate disturbance hypothesis. Support your conclusions with examples from your own experience if possible. Summarize how chaos theory contributes to your understanding of succession.

8. Distinguish among the following types of stability and give an example of an ecosystem which exemplifies each: inertia, constancy, resilience. Evaluate the interaction of stability and diversity.

9. Summarize the theory of island biogeography. Imagine two islands of two different sizes and distances from the mainland. Predict which would show the greatest species diversity. Defend your position.

Vocabulary to know:

climax community

commensalism

competition

competitive exclusion principle

constancy

disturbance

early successional plant species

ecological succession

ecotone

edge effect

epiphyte

exploitation competition

fundamental niche

homeostasis

host

immature comunity

indicator species

inertia

interference competition

interspecific competition

intraspecific competition

keystone species

late successional species

midsuccessional plant species

mutualism

native species

nonnative species

parasite

parasitism

persistence

pioneer community

pioneer species

precautionary principle

predation

predator

predator-prey relationship

prey

primary succession

realized niche

resilience

resource partitioning

secondary succession

soil

species diversity

stability

succession

symbiosis

symbiotic relationship

territoriality

theory of island biogeography

tolerance limits