Ch 11 Concepts and Vocabulary

1. Define risk and risk assessment. List four general types of common hazards and give two examples of each.

2. List five principal types of chemical hazards and give two examples of each. Define and describe relationships among dose, response, toxicity, and poison. Distinguish between acute and chronic exposures and acute and chronic effects.

3. Describe a dose-response curve. Evaluate the usefulness and limits of case studies, laboratory experiments, and epidemiology studies in determining toxicity of substances.

4. Distinguish between a linear dose-response model and a threshold dose-response model. Describe the difficulty in deciding which model applies best when low doses are involved. Evaluate the effectiveness of risk assessment and pollution prevention in dealing with hazards we face.

5. Distinguish between transmissible and nontransmissible diseases. List the six deadliest infectious diseases. Summarize the state of the battle against bacterial infections. Describe how transmission of viral diseases can result in pandemics. Relate an epidemiologic transition to a demographic transition. Summarize how developing countries and developed countries can best improve their health.

6. Define risk analysis. Compare technology reliability to human reliability.

7. Define risk-benefit analysis and desirability quotient. Give examples of technologies with high and low desirability quotients. List five problems with risk assessment.

8. List seven questions risk managers ask. List seven cases in which the public generally perceives that a technology or product has a greater risk than the risk estimated by experts.

benefit-cost analysis

bioaccumulation

biomagnification

carcinogen

dose

dose-response curve

hazardous chemical

LD50

Mutagen

nontransmissable disease

ppt

ppb

pathogen

persistence

poison

precautionary principle

response

risk assessment

risk management

risk-benefit analysis

synergistic interaction

teratogen

toxicity

transmissable disease