Chapter 19

Air Pollution

1.      Briefly describe the structure of the atmosphere being sure to include troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, and the boundaries between each set of layers. 


2.      Summarize ways in which humans disrupt Earth's major gaseous nutrient cycles.


3.      Distinguish between  primary pollutant and  secondary pollutant; stationary source and mobile source; photochemical smog and industrial smog. List eight major classes of primary outdoor pollutants.  Describe how smog is formed. Describe a thermal inversion and conditions under which it is most likely to occur.


4.      Define acid deposition. Identify the level of risk that acid deposition creates for ecological systems and for human health. Give one example of the complexities of interactions which can be set in motion by acid deposition. List six strategies to prevent acid deposition.


5.      Compare the risks of indoor and outdoor air pollution. List the four most dangerous indoor air pollutants, the potential health effects of each, and strategies for dealing with each.


6.      Briefly describe how air pollution affects human health, plants, aquatic life, and materials.


7.      Summarize the Clean Air Act. List six criticisms that environmentalists make about the Clean Air Act. Summarize the controversy over the stricter particle emission standards in the United States.


8.      List four prevention strategies and three cleanup strategies to reduce emissions from stationary sources of air pollution. Define emissions trading policy and tell which pollutants are being regulated by this policy.


9.      List eight prevention strategies and three cleanup strategies to reduce emission from motor vehicles. List six prevention strategies and six cleanup strategies to reduce indoor air pollution.


10.    Visualize an integrated picture puzzle of a healthy sustaining atmosphere.  Describe as many pieces of the puzzle as you can.


Key Terms  (Terms are listed in the same font style as they appear in the text.)

acid deposition (p. 447)

air pollution (p. 441)

atmospheric pressure (p. 440)

buffer (p. 447)

carbon oxides (p. 442) (p. 442)

industrial smog (p. 444)

nitric acid (HNO3) (p. 443)

nitrogen oxides (p. 443)

ozone (O3) (p. 444)

ozone layer (p. 441)

photochemical smog (p. 444)

primary pollutants (p. 441)


secondary pollutants (p. 441)

stratosphere (p. 441)

sulfur dioxide (SO2) (p. 444)

sulfuric acid (H2SO4) (p. 444)

temperature inversion (p. 446)

volatile organic compounds (VOCs) (p. 444)