Chapter 22

Solid and Hazardous Waste


1.      State the percentage of the world's solid wastes that is produced by the United States. State the percentage of solid waste produced in the United States that is municipal solid waste. Define hazardous waste. State the percentage of hazardous waste that is not regulated. List seven substances that are "linguistically detoxified."


2.      Compare waste management and pollution prevention approaches to solid and hazardous waste. List the hierarchy of goals for a low-waste approach. Evaluate which approach makes the most sense to you.  Give reasons for your choice. List seven ways to reduce waste and pollution. List four goals of an ecoindustrial revolution.


3.      List reuse strategies for refillable containers, grocery bags, and tires. Compare the costs and benefits of disposable vs. cloth diapers. Define compost.  Analyze the impact that widespread use of composting would have in the United States.


4.      Describe each of the elements and priorities in an Integrated Waste Management system.


5.      Discuss the variety of environmental management methods to deal with solid waste and describe the attributes and drawbacks of each of these methods.


6.      Summarize Denmark's experience with detoxification of hazardous waste. Assess the pros and cons of incineration of hazardous and solid wastes. Compare U.S. incinerators with the Japanese fluidized-bed incinerators.


7.      Describe a modern sanitary landfill.  Summarize the benefits and drawbacks of burying solid wastes in sanitary landfills. Summarize the benefits and drawbacks of deep-well disposal of hazardous wastes. Summarize the status of export of wastes. Summarize the causes, effects, and ways to deal with lead, dioxins, and chlorine.


8.      Name and briefly describe two U.S. hazardous-waste laws. Describe how Superfund has been subverted and how its enforcement can be improved.


9.      Summarize the goals of the ecojustice movement. Visualize a low-waste society. Describe the pieces that will form the framework and fill in this picture.


Key Terms  (Terms appear in the same font style as they appear in the text.)

environmental justice (p. 543)

hazardous (toxic) waste (p. 520)

industrial solid waste (p. 520)

integrated waste management (p. 523)

municipal solid waste (p. 520)

open dumps (p. 531)

precautionary principle (p. 545)

recycle (p. 524)

reuse (p. 524)

sanitary landfills (p. 531)

solid waste (p. 520)