CH 12 Vocab and Concepts

age structure

crude birth rate

crude death rate

demographic transition

family planning

infant mortality rate

life expectancy

linear growth

population change

population density

population distribution

replacement-level fertility

total fertility rate (TFR)

zero population growth (ZPG)

1. Define birth rate, death rate, emigration rate, and immigration rate. Write an equation to mathematically describe the relationship between these rates and the rate of population change.

2. Distinguish between replacement-level fertility and total fertility rate. Describe how total fertility rate affects population growth. List at least five factors that affect birth and fertility rates and five factors that affect death rate.

3. Summarize changes over time in the U.S. population growth rate. Give reasons for the high rate of teen pregnancy in the United States compared to the rate in other industrialized countries. Draw connections between population growth and environmental degradation in California.

4. Define infant mortality rate. Explain why it is considered a good indicator of quality of life.

5. Compare rates of population growth in developed countries and developing countries. Explain the differences you find.

6. Using population age structure diagrams, explain how the age structure of a country creates population growth momentum. Summarize problems associated with a baby boom and a declining population.

7. Summarize key factors used to influence population size: immigration policy, family planning, economic rewards and penalties, empowering women. Summarize the current attitudes toward immigration policy in the United States.

8. List the four stages of the demographic transition. List social, biological, political, and economic issues that can be addressed to help developing countries undergo a demographic transition. List three factors that may limit the effectiveness of a demographic transition in influencing population size.

9. Compare and evaluate the population policies of India and China. Summarize what we have learned from decades of trying to influence human population growth. List the major goals of the UN Conference on Population and Development.