1. List and define four variables which collectively determine population dynamics. Write an equation that expresses the relationships among four variables that determine changes in population.

2. Define zero population growth. Define biotic potential. List four factors which contribute to biotic potential.

3. Define carrying capacity. Draw population growth curves that reflect exponential growth, exponential growth leveling off gradually to limits, and exponential growth limited by a reproductive time lag. Analyze the variables that result in these different outcomes.

4. Distinguish between density-dependent and density-independent checks on population growth, and list three examples of each.

5. List three types of population curves found in nature, and identify one organism which exemplifies each.

6. Distinguish between r-strategists and K-strategists, and give two examples of each. Draw the type of survivorship curve you would expect each type of strategist to exhibit. Explain the meaning of the curves.

7. Distinguish conservation biology from wildlife management. List three underlying principles of conservation biology. Define ecological integrity; describe how corridors and bioinformatics can be used as tools to preserve ecological integrity.

8. List seven ways humans have modified natural ecosystems. List four principles that can move human societies toward sustainability.

9. Describe the new discipline restoration ecology. Distinguish among natural restoration, rehabilitation, and active restoration.

Key Terms

asexual reproduction (p. 195)

bioinformatics (p. 199)

biotic potential (p. 191)

carrying capacity (K) (p. 191)

conservation biology (p. 198)


environmental resistance (p. 191)

exponential growth (p. 192)

intrinsic rate of increase (r) (p. 191)

J-shaped curve

K-selected species (p. 196)

linear growth

logistic growth (p. 192)

minimum viable population (MVP) (p. 192)

population density

population dispersion

population distribution

population dynamics

r-selected species (p. 196)

sexual reproduction (p. 195)

S-shaped curve

survivorship curve (p. 198)