CHAPTER 16

ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND RENEWABLE ENERGY

Objectives

1. List the advantages and disadvantages of improving energy efficiency so that we do more with less. Define life cycle cost and cogeneration and describe their potential for saving energy. Describe changes which can be made in industry, transportation, buildings, lights, and appliances which would improve energy efficiency.

2. List the advantages and disadvantages of using direct solar energy to heat air and water for buildings. Distinguish between active and passive solar heating. Compare the following solar technologies and evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of each: solar power tower, solar thermal plant, nonimaging optical solar concentrator, solar cooker.

3. List the advantages and disadvantages of using water in the forms of hydropower, tidal power, wave power, ocean thermal currents, and solar ponds to produce electricity.

4. List the advantages and disadvantages of using wind to produce electricity.

5. List the advantages and disadvantages of using biomass to heat space and water, produce electricity, and propel vehicles. Consider burning wood, agricultural wastes, and urban wastes as well as conversion of biomass to biofuels.

6. List the advantages and disadvantages of using hydrogen gas to heat space and water, produce electricity, and propel vehicles. State the energy source that is needed to produce hydrogen to create a truly sustainable future. Describe constraints to a solar-hydrogen revolution.

7. Distinguish among dry steam, wet steam, and hot water sources of geothermal energy. List the advantages and disadvantages of using geothermal energy for space heating, high-temperature industrial heating, and electricity production.

8. Analyze the interactions of economic policy and energy resources. In particular consider the results of using free-market competition, keeping energy prices low, and keeping energy prices high.

9. List four ways that the United States could build a more sustainable energy future.


Key Terms (Terms are listed in the same font style as they appear in the text.)

active solar heating system (p. 395)

animal manure (p. 404)

biofuels (p. 403)

cogeneration (p. 384)

energy efficiency (p. 381)

geothermal energy (p. 409)

hydropower (p. 400)

life cycle cost (p. 382)

micropower systems (p. 410)

passive solar heating system (p. 394)

photovoltaic (PV) cells (p. 398)

solar cells (p. 398)

superinsulated house (p. 389)

watt

wind farm (p. 40)