Please use this rubric to determine your grade when writing your paper. I have copied a simple research paper that has been documented using the style that I am used to seeing and grading. Please use this paper (below the rubric) to see how to format your paper and references. I did not choose this paper for its writing excellence or correctness of length, I only chose it for its format. Email me if you have questions at

Area of Grade
% Grade
-read smoothly (don't trip the Pitts)
-topics sources are smoothly integrated not clumped

-"introduction" should adequately introduce the main points that are going to be made
-information used relates to your topic
-all ideas used in the "findings" have parenthetical references
-topic is covered adequately
-quotations are used sparingly (less than 1/5 of paper)

-correct parenthetical reference format (author's last name, date)
-double spaced
-sections headings include Introduction, Findings, Conclusions, & Literature Cited (centered)
Veto Power over whole paper (9/10 sources = 10% off)
-parenthetical references used
-literature cited has 10 sources with authors minimum
-all quotations are cited and quotation marks used


Sample paper documented in the CBE Style Name-Year (N-Y)

A Brief Overview of Antibiotic Resistance in Bacteria


Bill Krueger



A nasty cold takes you by surprise. There is a big exam tomorrow; you reach for the leftover penicillin in

the medicine cabinet. That ought to get rid of this virus. Directions say, "take one" – you take two because you are

feeling terrible. Maybe tomorrow you will be better. What is wrong with this scenario? First and foremost,

antibiotics have NO EFFECT on viruses. Secondly, a prescription should only be taken as directed. This scenario

could set up a potentially deadly situation. When antibiotics are taken indiscriminately, the stage is set for the

selection of resistant bacteria. First documented in 1960, resistant bacteria are not harmed by one or more

antibiotics (Levy, 1998). With resistant bacteria infections, traditional treatments often fail and the patient

becomes sicker, and may even die. How do bacteria become resistant? What increases the chances of bacterial

resistance? And how much of a threat are resistant bacteria?


Made naturally, antibiotics are designed to interfere with or kill other microorganisms (Ambile-Cuevas et

al., 1995; Levy, 1998). Microbes that make the antibiotics have devised ways to protect themselves from their self-

manufactured toxins (Ambile-Cuevas et al., 1995). This resistance can also be passed on to other bacteria, even

those of different species. When a population of bacteria is exposed to an antibiotic (which occurs, for example,

when we take antibiotics), those bacteria NOT resistant to the drug die first. The resistant ones are left behind to

produce more resistant bacteria (Ambile-Cuevas et al., 1995; Levy, 1998). Some activities contributing to the

observed increase in resistant bacteria include the following (in no particular order):

bacterium, resistant to one, two, or even three antibiotics, have been isolated. Some bacteria seem to acquire the

DNA of other bacteria, and therefore antibiotic resistance genes, more readily than others (Grady, 1996). This has

produced particularly pathogenic strains of some food borne bacteria, such as E. coli and Salmonella, which no

longer respond to antibiotic treatment (Holmberg et al., 1987). Outbreaks of these infections have made headlines



In summary, the use of antibiotics selects for resistant bacteria. These bacteria have the potential to evade

treatment and possibly harm or even kill patients they infect. Strategies for reducing the current increase in antibiotic

resistance include taking antibiotics as prescribed, and only when necessary, and avoiding the use of antibacterial

products in the home.

Literature Cited:

Ambile-Cuevas CF, Cardemas-Garcia M, Ludgar M. 1995. "Antibiotic resistance." American Scientist; 83 (4) 320-329.

Anonymous. 2006. "Apples and Oranges of Antibiotic Resistance."

Grady D. 1996. "Quick-change pathogens gain on evolutionary edge." Science; 274: 1081.

Holmberg S, Osterholm M, Sanger K, Cohen M. 1987. "Drug-resistant salmonella from animals fed antimicrobials."
New England Journal of Medicine
; 31: 617-622.

Levy SB. 1998. "The challenge of antibiotic resistance." Scientific American; 278 (3):46-53.


Note: If you would like to see how to do other types of sources with this style, go to

Note: "et al" is a latin abbreviation for "and others." It is used for referencing three or more authors in parenthetical references.