First Quarter Biology Exam Review

What is it that biology studies?

Science Method

What is the difference between a hypothesis, a theory, and an observation?

What is it that an experiment tests?

What are the steps to the scientific method in the correct sequence?

Biochemistry/ Carbon Compounds

Where are proteins made in cells? How are they transported out of the cell?

What are the monomers of proteins?

What do enzymes (a type of protein) do in living systems?

What common substances are carbohydrates?

What common substances are lipids?

What are the types of nucleic acids?


What are the smallest units of life that carry out all functions.

What is homeostasis?

Functions of organelles (nucleus, cell wall, cytoskeleton, ribosome, mitochondria, cell membrane, chloroplast, rough endoplasmic reticulum, smooth endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus)

Be able to recognize the organelles in animal cells (see labeled cell).

What is the main difference between prokaryotes and eukaryotes?

What is the sequence that occurs when protein is made to when it is expelled (exported) from the cell?

What organelles are only in plants? Only in animals?

What will happen to plant cells that are surrounded by fresh water due to osmosis (hypotonic solution)? To animal cells?

What direction does diffusion always go?

When molecules can move freely across cell membranes, which way will they diffuse (answer)? What if the concentration is the same on both sides of the cell membrane?

Differentiate between diffusion, osmosis, active transport, facilitated diffusion, and phagocytosis (endocytosis).

Cell Energy

How are photosynthesis and respiration alike, different, and opposites?

What is ATP? What is ATP's role in cells? How is energy released from ATP?


What is the equation for photosynthesis?

What organelle does photosynthesis take place in?

What gas is released by plants that are photosynthesizing?

What source of energy powers photosynthesis?

What would happen if your removed CO2 from a plants environment?

As the intensity of light increases, how would photosynthesis rate vary (see page 213 in your text)?

What is transpiration? How would it affect photosynthesis?


What is the equation for respiration?

What organelle does respiration take place in?

What substance is broken down in cellular respiration to produce ATP energy?

What kind of organisms use respiration? Do plants use cellular respiration? When?