covalent bonds



ionic bonds






1) _________________ are the smallest particles of elements. They consist of three tinier (subatomic) particles. The 2)______________ is positively charged and is what determines the kind of 3)________________ it is. For instance, any element with 1 proton is Hydrogen. Any element with 3 protons in Lithium. The protons are located in the 4)_____________ of the atom together with the neutral charged 5)______________. A very tiny negatively charged particle called the 6)________________ orbits this nucleus of protons and neutrons at around a billion times a second.

Atoms come together to form 7)________________ (combinations of atoms) so that their outer electron levels share or transfer to total 8 electrons. Atoms that share electrons from their outer layers form 8)________ _____________. If an atom like Chlorine has 7 electrons in its outer layer nears an atom of Sodium which has 1 electron in its outer layer, they transfer the 1 from Sodium to the Chlorine. The two atoms become charge atoms called 9)___________. The ionic Na+ and Cl- are attracted to each other and form an 10)___________ _____________.












Organic compounds are those whose backbone is made of Carbon atoms. The group of organic compounds made of Carbon and H20 are the 11)________________ . They include the single sugar compounds known as 12)________________________ which include 13)____________________ made by plants during photosynthesis, 14)_______________ found in fruits like a peach, and 15)________________ known as bean sugar. If two monosaccharides are joined by dehydration synthesis, they become a two-sugar compound known as a 16)_______________________. Disaccharides include 17)_____________ or milk sugar and 18)______________ which is table sugar. Carbohydrates made of MANY sugars are called 19)_____________________. A polysaccharide made of a single long chain of monosaccharides is 20)_________________, which is used by plants for sugar storage (such as in potatoes). A double chained polysaccharide that in not digestible by humans and found in plant cell walls is 21)__________________________. This fiber keeps our digestive systems regular. Too much can cause diahrrea and too little will cause constipation.

amino acids





nucleic acids






22)__________ ____________ are the molecules that are in charge of storing heredity and carrying out code to make proteins. 23)__________ is the nucleic acid that stores the hereditary code in the nucleus of the cell. That code is carried to the ribosomes outside the nucleus by the 24)_________ molecules. The code on the RNA which was on the DNA is translated into chains of 25)________ ___________ (made of C, H, O & N) which hook together by dehydration synthesis to become 26)_______________. These proteins become the structure of cells and control their chemical reactions. 27)______________ are specialized protein that speed up reactions in cells and allow us to live at 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit. They are specific and work for only one molecule know as its 28)________________. Where an enzyme molecule has an "outy" the substrate molecule has an "inny" which allows them to fit together like a lock and key. For instance, the substrate sucrose and its enzyme sucrase fit together and sucrose breaks down into glucose and fructose.

Proteins, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids are long repeating molecules known as 29)____________________. The single repeating tiny molecules that make them up are 30)_________________. For instance, starch and cellulose are carbohydrate polymers made of monosaccharide monomers. Proteins are polymers made of amino acid monomers. Nucleic acids, DNA & RNA, are polymers made of 31)_____________________ monomers.

32)___________ are molecules that are used by our body to store excess energy and waterproof our cells. They are contain C, H, and O. These include fats, waxes, and oils.