CH 3 VOCABULARY REVIEW
1) _______________________ is the study of how organisms interact with their environment. It begins with the individual 2)_______________________ that is part of a larger group of interbreeding individuals of the same species known as a 3)_______________________ . This population interacts with other populations of different species to form a 4)_______________________. When the living populations interact with their nonliving or physical environment they make up an 5)________________________. If a group of ecosystems have the same climate and dominant plant communities they are a 6)_______________________, such as grassland, tropical forest, deciduous forest, or desert. All biomes on Earth combine to form the 7)_____________________, the highest level of organization studied in biology.
Energy must be captured by the sun during the process of 8)________________________, which converts sunlight energy into chemical energy in glucose. Green organisms that do this are 9)_______________________ (self-feeders). Since they produce food for the entire ecosystem these organisms are also called 10)______________________.
The organisms in the ecosystem that cannot produce their own food are called 11)____________________(other-feeders). They are classified by what other organisms they eat. Ones that eat producers are 12)__________________. These plant eaters can then be eaten by 13)________________________. Organisms like humans, bears, and crows can eat both plants and animals and are called 14)___________________________. The carnivores at the top of the food chain are known as 15)___________ ________________. 16)___________________ break down all these organisms when they die and return their materials to the environment.
pyramid of biomass
pyramid of energy
pyramid of numbers
The sun's energy moves through these trophic (feeding) levels in single pathways known as 17)_____________ _____________. In the real world, single isolated pathways do not exist alone. Reality is that energy can flow through a great variety of pathways known as a 18)____________ ______________. As energy moves through a food chain or food web, only 10% makes it to the next trophic level. The 100% of energy found in producers will result in only 10% found in herbivores. By the time you get to top carnivores there is only .1% left. The 19)_________________ __ ____________ shows this lessening of energy as it moves to the top. The 20) __________________ __ _____________ shows the same thing happening with the flow of food mass through the trophic levels. A third 21)____________ ___ _______________ shows the count of individuals at each trophic level lessens as you go to the top.
In the biosphere elements and chemical compounds are passed from one organism to another and back to the environment through 22)_________________________ _____________. The simplest cycle is the 23)___________ cycle that involves evaporation from oceans, rivers, and lakes and 24)___________________ from plants. This water vapor condenses to form droplets that gather together and become 25)______________________ that falls to earth as rain or snow. Carbon is especially important to organisms and is recycled between the living and nonliving during the 26)_______________ ______________. Carbon dioxide is taken in by autotrophs during 27)______________________ and is returned to the environment during the process of 28)____________________. This cycle is closely related to the 29)_______________ __________ in which oxygen is released during the process of 30)________________________ and used during the process of 31)__________________. The 32)___________ __________ is responsible for the flow of atmospheric nitrogen into living systems when bacteria in the soil convert nitrogen gas into ammonia during a process call 33)_________ ____________. Other bacteria convert ammonia to nitrates and nitrites which are taken in by plants and are used to build proteins and nucleic acids. These compounds are broken down decomposers when organisms die and the process of 34)_______________________ converts nitrates into nitrogen gas that can then go back into the atmosphere.