pages 63-64

1)_____________________is the study of how organisms interact with their environment. It begins with a group of organisms of the same 2)_______________ which are capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring.When the living populations of organisms interact with their nonliving or physical environment they make up an 3)________________________. If a group of ecosystems have the same climate and dominant plant communities they are a 4)_______________________, such as grassland, tropical forest, deciduous forest, or desert. All biomes on Earth combine to form the biosphere, the highest level of organization studied in biology.











primary- consumers



secondary consumers

top carnivores

pages 67-69

Energy must be captured by the sun during the process of 5)________________________, which converts sunlight energy into chemical energy in glucose. Green organisms that do this are 7)_______________________ (self-feeders). Since they produce food for the entire ecosystem these organisms are also called 8)__________________.

The organisms in the ecosystem that cannot produce their own food are called 9)____________________(other-feeders). They are classified by what other organisms they eat. Ones that eat producers are 10)_________________. Based on their place in the food chain, they are also known as 11)______________________. These plant eaters can then be eaten by 12)____________________, which in a food chain represent the level called 13)_____________________. The carnivores at the top of the food chain are known as 15)___________ ________________. 16)___________________ , such as mites and earthworms feed on plant and animal remains. Finally, heterotrophs known as 17)___________ ____ break down all these organisms when they die and return their materials to the environment.







food chains

food webs

pyramid of biomass

pyramid of energy

pyramid of numbers


pages 69-73

The sun's energy moves through these 17)_________ (feeding) levels in single pathways known as 18)_________________. In the real world, single isolated pathways do not exist alone. Reality is that energy can flow through a great variety of pathways known as a 19)____________ ______________. As energy moves through a food chain or food web, only 10% makes it to the next trophic level. The 100% of energy found in producers will result in only 10% found in herbivores. By the time you get to top carnivores there is only .1% left. The 20)_________________ __ ____________ shows this lessening of energy as it moves to the top. The 21) __________________ __ _____________ shows the same thing happening with the flow of food mass through the trophic levels. A third 22)____________ ___ _______________ shows the count of individuals at each trophic level lessens as you go to the top.




biogeochemical cycles

carbon cycle

nitrogen cycle


oxygen cycle







pages 74-78

Every living organism needs 23)____________________ to grow and carry out life functions. In the biosphere nutrients and chemical compounds are passed from one organism to another and back to the environment through 24)_________________________ _____________. The simplest cycle is the 25)___________ cycle that involves evaporation from oceans, rivers, and lakes and 26)___________________ from plants. This water vapor condenses to form droplets that gather together and become 27)______________________ that falls to earth as rain or snow. Carbon is especially important to organisms and is recycled between the living and nonliving during the 28)_______________ ______________. Carbon dioxide is taken in by autotrophs during 29)______________________ and is returned to the environment during the process of 30)____________________.








greenhouse effect

heat retention


Pages 86-87

In the atmosphere, temperature, precipitation, and other environmental factors combine to produce weather. 31)____________refers to the average, year-after-year conditions of temperature and precipitation in a particular region. The atmosphere, with its layer of greenhouse gases, also retains heat naturally in a process called the 32)______________________.

abiotic factors

biotic factors

carrying capacity

competition law

competitive- exclusion principle

final capacity


limiting factor



Pages 90-92

In an ecosystem, biological influences on organisms are known as 33)___________________. Whereas nonliving factors such as air, sunlight, and land are known as 34)___________________. If a factor limits the growth of a population of organisms in an ecosystem, then it is called a 35)_____________ ___________. The total number of organisms that an ecosystem is capable of supporting is its 36)____________________. Both biotic and abiotic factors are included in an organism’s 36)______________which is the area where an organism lives. If an organism’s habitat is its address, than its 37)________________or the full range of physical and biological conditions in which an organism lives and the way in which the organism uses those conditions. The 38)_________________________________ is a rule that states that no two species can occupy the same niche in the same habitat at the same time.












Pages 92-93

When organisms live together in ecosystems, they interact. 39)____________________ occurs when organisms attempt to use a 40)_________________, or a life necessity, in the same place, at the same time. 41)_____________________is when one organism captures and feeds on another. A relationship in which two organisms live closely together is 42)_______________. One form of symbiosis is 43)____________________________ in which both organisms benefit from the relationship. In 44)__________________________ one organism benefits while the other doesn’t care. Finally, the type of interaction in which one organism is helped in the relationship, while the other organism is hurt is 45)__________________.