Chapter 15 Review:†

Darwinís Theory of Evolution

  1. ________________, or change over time, is the process by which __________ organisms have descended from ___________ organisms.†† This is an example of a ___________ or a well-supported testable explanation of phenomena that have occurred in the natural world.
  2. The person who observed variations in the characteristics of animals and plant on the different islands of the Galapagos? ____________________
  3. In addition to observing living organisms, Darwin studied the preserved remains of ancient organisms called _________________
  4. During his travels on a ship called the ____________, Darwin made numerous _____________ and collected evidence that led him to propose a revolutionary ___________ about the way life changes over time.†
  5. Darwin observed that the _______________ of many animals and plant varied noticeably among the different islands of the Galapagos.
  6. __________ and ____________ helped scientists recognize that Earth is many millions of years old and the processes that changed Earth in the __________ are the same processes that operate in the ____________.
  7. Which of the following ideas proposed by Lamark was later found to be incorrect?
    1. Acquired characteristics can be inherited.
    2. All species were descended from other species.
    3. Living things change over time.
    4. Organisms are adapted to their environments.
  8. In his book, _______________________, Darwin proposed a mechanism for evolution that he called ______________________.
  9. Differences among individuals of a species are referred to as ________________
  10. Which would an animal breeder use to produce cows that give more milk?
    1. Overproduction†††††††††††††††††††††† b.† Acquired characteristics
    2. Genetic isolation†††††††††††††††††††† c.† Artificial selection
  11. An inherited characteristic that increases an organisms ability to survive and reproduce in its specific environment is called ________________
  12. The concept that each living species has descended, with changes, from other species over time is referred to as _________________
  13. Fitness is a result of
    1. Adaptations†††††††††††††††c.† common descent
    2. Artificial selection†††††† d.† variation
  14. Individuals that are better suited to their environment---that is, with high levels of ___________---survive and reproduce more successfully.† This was a process that Darwin called __________________________.
  15. Darwin argued that living things have been ______________ on Earth for millions of years.† Evidence for this process could be found in the _____________, the geographical distribution of living species, _______________________ of living organisms, and similarities in early development.
  16. Structures that have different mature forms but develop from the same embryonic tissue are ___________________.