Semester Final Review Sheet

Cells:

What are the functions of the following organelles:

cell membrane -

chloroplasts -

Golgi apparatus -

lysosome -

mitochondria -

ribosomes -

rough endoplasmic reticulum -

smooth endoplasmic reticulum -

What are the characteristics of prokaryotes?

What are the characteristics of eukaryotes?

Biochemistry:

How do enzymes affect the reactions in living cells?

When DNA becomes proteins, please sequence the following terms correctly in the order they occur: mRNA, DNA, tRNA, Protein

Match the following monomers with the polymers they make by drawing lines between them:

monomers polymers
amino acids RNA & DNA
nucleotides starch & cellulose
monosaccharides lipids
fatty acids & glycerol proteins

Photosynthesis & Respiration:

What is the purpose of photosynthesis?

What is the equation for respiration?

Cellular Reproduction:

How many sets of chromosomes do each of the following have?

Type of Cell How many sets of chromosomes (1 or 2)? Are produced by the process of (mitosis or meiosis)? How many chromosomes in humans (23 or 46)?
body cells (all cells EXCEPT sperm & eggs)      
sex cells (gametes / sperm & eggs)      

 

Genetics:

Genotypes Crossed

resulting genotypic ratios
(#TT : Tt : tt)

resulting phenotypic ratio
(Talls : Shorts)
What percentage are tall (100, 75, 50, 25 or 0)? What percentage are short (100, 75, 50 25, or 0)?

TT x TT

       

TT x tt

       

Tt x Tt

       

tt x tt

       

What is the gender of the following genotypes? XX ____________ XY____________

What does Mendel's law of "independent assortment" state?

What is a mutation?

How can a DNA molecule be mutated?

What would a mutation on a DNA molecule do to the resulting protein molecule it is supposed to code for?

Liver cells and skin cells are different even though they have all 50,000 DNA messages (genes) on exactly the same 46 chromosomes. How can they be different if they have identical DNA and chromosomes in them?

How can proteins be different if they are made of the same 20 amino acids?

Please fill out the following table for DNA and RNA by placing an "X" for each characteristic the molecule has:

Nucleic Acid double
strand
single
strand
adenine guanine cytosine thymine uracil deoxy-ribose
sugar
ribose
sugar
phosphate
DNA
RNA
 

Refer to the Codon Table above:

Which four amino acids does the mRNA strand UGGAGAGCCUUU code for?

When the DNA strand GGGCCCTTTAAA is replicated (DNA codes for DNA) , what is the resulting strand?

When the DNA strand GGGCCCTTTAAA is transcribed (DNA codes for mRNA), what is the resulting strand?

When the DNA strand GGGCCCTTTAAA is translated (mRNA codes for amino acid sequences), what is the resulting strand of amino acids?

What is genetic engineering? Give 3 examples of when genetic engineering is used.

Ecology

List the terrestrial biomes.

Which biome has the most biodiversity of all terrestrial biomes?

Which biome has the least biodiversity of all terrestrial biomes?

Define:

abiotic

biotic

biodiversity

?) decomposers

4) top carnivores

3) secondary consumers

2) primary consumers

1) producers

If your were to knock any one level of the 1st 3 levels of above organisms out, what would happen to the level above them?

Notice, I did not put a number on "decomposers" in the list above. What four numbers would be appropriate for numbering a decomposer? Explain. What is their function in an ecosystem?

If a species of shrew (small mammal eaten by owls) eats mainly earthworms and John Doe puts out traps that catch all the shrews in the area, what would happen to the earthworm and the owl population sizes?

People are using fossil fuels at record rates. This releases CO2 into the Earth's atmosphere. What future effects (list 4) could be witnessed by our aging selves, children, grandchildren, or great grandchildren?

In the diagram to the left:

Which letter represents a time where birthrate in the population is FAR greater than death rate?_____

Which 2 letters represent a time where birthrate is slightly greater than deathrate? ____ and ____

Which letter represents a time when birthrate and deathrate are equal?____

What would increased immigration do to the population curve at D?

What percentage of energy is available to organisms in the trophic level above them (such as from producers to primary consumers to secondary consumers to top carnivores)?______ If there 1000 Calories of energy in producers, how many would there be in primary consumers?_______ In the secondary consumers?_______ in top carnivores?______

Where does the unused energy go?

Evolution:

What is evolution?

What are DARWIN'S FIVE ideas as to how populations evolve?

1)

2)

3)

4)

5)

Does natural selection act on the phenotypes in a population or genotypes? Explain.

Why is it that recessive diseases (such as hemophelia and cystic fibrosis) are difficult to eliminate from populations?

How often do mutations occur in populations? When they do occur, do they offer any benefits the population?

What is an organism's niche?

Give examples of organisms with broad niches?

Give examples of organisms with narrow niches?

Which on of the above will most likely survive environmental changes?

There are six colors of lizard populations that live in a particular area because there are six basic colors to the environment. The environment changes to where there are now only 2 colors.

What happens to the lizard populations that are the wrong colors?

What happens to the lizard populations that are the right colors?

What is genetic drift? What size populations are most affected by genetic drift?

Why does geographical isolation tend to produce new species?

How are reproductive isolation and geographical isolation the same? How are they different?

List three possible causes of mass extinctions such as occured 65 million years ago and 250 million years ago.

Human Systems:

Using the words "alveoli air space" and "blood in capillaries," please explain:

the direction that carbon dioxide diffuses?

the direction that oxygen diffuses?

What roles do the kidneys play for us in maintaining homeostasis?

What organs are found in:

the central nervous system?

the peripheral nervous system?

What are reflexes and why do we have them?

Give 3 examples of glands, hormones, their target organ(s), and there actions:

gland hormone target organ(s) response
       
       
       

What is negative feedback?

Describe how one of the hormones you gave above would perform negative feedback and maintain homeostasis:

Describe how neurons communicate with each other using the words: synapse, neurotransmitter, impulse (or action potential), sodium and potassium ions

Differentiate between motor and sensory neurons.

Give 3 examples of the body's first line of defense against diseases.

Give 3 exampes of the body's second line of defense if invading bacteria or viruses get in.

Differentiate between the words antibodies and vaccines.

Why are viruses considered nonliving, infectious particles?

How does HIV kill people?