endocrine

endocrine system

exocrine

hormones

nonsteroid

steroid

target

The (1)_____________ ____________ is considered our "slow control" because it usually takes longer for its effects to be noticed than with the nervous system. (2)_______________ glands secrete chemical messages called (3)______________ directly into the bloodstream through capillaries. The hormones are then delivered to all the cells of the body but only the (4)___________ cells respond to them because they have receptors for the hormones. (5)____________ glands such as the salivary glands and sweat glands secrete their contents through ducts to the outside of the gland. Hormones that are made of lipids and can pass through cell membranes to change the nucleus of a cell are called (6)____________ hormones. Hormones that bind to receptors on the cell membrane and do not enter are (7)__________________hormones.

ADH

blood pressure

hypothalamus

increase

less

pituitary

reabsorbing

tubules

The (8)_______________ gland secretes nine different hormones that regulates other endocrine glands. It is located at the base of the brain and is controlled by a part of the brain that is directly above it called the (9)____________________. For instance, if the hypothalamus senses that the blood pressure is low, it sends a message to the pituitary to release (10)________ into the bloodstream. This causes the levels of ADH to rise in the blood. The kidney (11)______________ respond by (12)___________ more water. This causes the blood volume to (13)____________ which then increases (14)_________ __________. The hypothalamus responds by telling the pituitary to stop secreting ADH, which decreases the blood levels of ADH, which causes the kidney tubules to reabsorb (15)______________ water, which causes the blood volume and pressure to decrease.

diabetes mellitus

glucagon

glucose

homeostasis

insulin

liver

pancreas

Type I

Type II

 

The (16)______________ is a gland located below the stomach. It is part of two systems. As a member of the digestive system it secretes enzymes into the small intestine as an exocrine gland. As a member of the endocrine system it secretes two very important hormones into the blood to regulate (17)_________________ levels in our blood. Beta cells in the islets of Langerhans secrete (18)_________________ which stimulates the (19)_______________ and muscles to remove glucose from the blood and store it as glycogen (animal starch) or fat. Alpha cells secrete (20)______________ which stimulates the liver to break down glycogen and release it as glucose into the blood. The pancreas is not under pituitary control and maintains (21)________________ by keeping the glucose levels in our blood very close to the same all the time. If someone has problems with blood sugar levels being too high, they may have (22)__________ _____________. If a person with diabetes does not secrete enough insulin, they have 23)_____________ diabetes. If a person develops diabetes later in life and their receptors do not respond properly to insulin, they probably have (24)____________ diabetes.

23

46

estrogen

FSH

LH

meiosis

milk

ovaries

reproductive

sperm

testes

testosterone

voice

widen

Sexual development in males and females is controlled by the hypothalamus and pituitary. The pituitary secretes leutenizing hormone, (25)_______, which causes the males testes to secrete (26)_____________________ which cause the target cells in his muscles to increase in size, his (27)__________________ organs to mature, and his (28)___________ to deepen. LH causes females' (29)___________ to release (30)_______________ which targets cells in the breasts to enlarge and prepare for (31)________ production, the reproductive organs to mature, and the hips to (32)______________ to make childbirth easier.

The pituitary also secretes (33)_________ which stimulates the follicles (duh) of the ovaries to mature an egg to be released. FSH stimulates the male (34)______________to produce their gametes called (35)____________. Both eggs and sperm are produced by the cell division process of (36)_________________ which divides the number of chromosomes in the cell from (37)___________ down to (38)___________.