page 6

Cellular Respiration: (define) (Ch 9)

What organisms do it?

 

What is a heterotroph

Balanced equation for it?

What factors would affect the rate of respiration in humans?

What is the relationship between photosynthesis and respiration? (draw a diagram of a plant and an animal and draw the flow of materials between them) (p232)

page 1

MY BIOLOGY REVIEW BOOK
for
STAR TEST 2006

 

 

 

 

by

 

page 2
Biology
: (define)

What is life? (list the characteristics of living things)(p16)

 

What is science? (define)(p3)

(explain the steps to the scientific method)(sect. 1-2)

Chemistry of Life:

What are the properties of water that make life possible?(2-2)

Organic Compounds (define) (2-3)

Explain 4 groups and give examples of each and their functions in living systems?

Enzymes: What are they? What do they do for cells? (2-4)

page 3

Cell Theory: What are the basic units of life? (7-1)

Explain 3 parts to cell theory:(7-1)

prokaryotic cells (define & give examples)

eukaryotic cells (define)

animal cell (diagram & label)(7-2)

plant cell (diagram & label)(7-2)

page 4

Give the functions of these organelles:(7-2)

cell membrane

nucleus

mitochondria

chloroplasts

ribosomes

endoplasmic reticulum (smooth)

endoplasmic reticulum (rough)

Golgi apparatus

cell wall

Cell Transport: (7-3)

Cell Membrane (diagram/label) - explain bi-lipid layer & channels

Explain:

diffusion

 

Explain how diffusion accounts for oxygen and CO2 exchange between air & blood in lungs.

page 5

osmosis

3 types solutions (what will cells do in each)

active transport (diagram)

endocytosis (diagram)

exocytosis (diagram)

Photosynthesis: (define) (Ch 8)

What organisms do it?

What is an autotroph?

Balanced equation for it?(p206)

What factors would affect the rate of photosynthesis? (p214)

What is ATP used for by organisms? (8-1)

page 7

Genetics & Cell Reproduction

How are binary fission, mitosis, & meiosis the same?

How are binary fission, mitosis, & meiosis different? (use the words prokaryotic, eukaryotic, asexual, and sexual in your answer)

Which one of the 3 processes above get out of control and cause cancer?

What happens during each of the following DNA / RNA processes?

replication

transcription

translation

How are DNA & RNA alike? different?

What DNA matches the codons ACA CCT CGA?
What mRNA matches the codons ACA CCT CGA?

What is the relationship between DNA, genes, & chromosomes?

State Mendel's laws of:
segregation-

independent assortment-(does this always work?)

page 8

A man with blue eyes (bb) marries a brown-eyed woman from Africa (BB). What are the chances they will have a blue-eyed child? Why?

Two brown-eyed people marry and want to have children. Each of them had a blue-eyed mother. What are the chances they will have a blue-eyed child? Why?

What are the chances the above couple will have a brown-eyed girl? Why?

What are the chances that 2 colorblind people will have a normal-vision child? Why?

Describe the relationship between the terms DNA, RNA, amino acids, proteins, and enzymes?

With only 20 amino acids, how can there be an almost infinite number of proteins?

Evolution

What are Darwin's 5 ideas of how evolution occurs?
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-
-
-
-

What 3 factors will increase variation in a population?
-
-
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As variation increases in a population, what happens to the chances the population will survive environmental change?

page 9

Give an example of each of the following types of natural selection:

-directional:

-stabilizing:

-disruptional:

The following are types of isolation that allow evolution of new species. Please give 3 examples of each:

-geographical

-reproductive

Why does natural selection work on organisms' phenotypes rather than their genotypes?

Please list 3 different events that can cause mass extinction:
-
-
-

Define genetic drift:

Ecology (define) -

Biodiversity is the sum total of all the different kinds of organisms in an ecosystem. Please circle what happens to biodiversity (Increases, Decreases, or remains the Same) when:

-Man cuts down the rainforest to plant grass for cattle ( ID S)
-Geographic isolation occurs and new species form ( ID S)
-Insecticides are sprayed on a yard to eliminate pests ( ID S)
-An massive asteroid hits the Earth ( ID S)
-Introduction of a nonnative predator such as a cat ( ID S)

page 10

Please circle what each of the following will do to population size (Increases, Decreases, or remains the Same)

-birth ( ID S)
-death ( ID S)
-immigration ( ID S)
-emigration ( ID S)

Circle the organic compounds involved with the carbon cycle:

carbohydrateslipidsnucleic acidsproteins

Circle the organic compouds involved with the nitrogen cycle:

carbohydrateslipidsnucleic acidsproteins

Please place each of the following terms into the correct level of the following energy pyramid:

carnivores, producers, top carnivores, herbivores

What is the source for all the energy in the above food pyramid?

How are food chains and food webs different?

page 11

Circle the body systems that are involved with getting oxygen to your cells:

nervousreproductivedigestiverespiratory

skeletalendocrinemuscularexcretory

What is homeostasis?

What does each of the following systems do to maintain homeostasis?

respiratory

excretory

digestive

nervous

Give at least two reasons why viruses are considered nonliving rather than living:
-
-

How do vaccinations protect us from disease?

Please give examples of the following in our body:

specific defenses

nonspecific defenses