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Cellular Respiration: (define) (Ch 9)

What organisms do it?

  • ALL organisms do cellular respiration. Even plants that use chloroplasts to make glucose (food) and oxygen from CO2 and H20 use their mitochondria to convert oxygen and glucose into ATP energy for the cells use.

What is a heterotroph

  • A heterotroph is any organism that gets its energy by eating or digesting other organisms. For instance, we get our energy from the food we eat. We do NOT do photosynthesis like autotrophs.

Balanced equation for it?

  • C6H12O6 + 6H2O ---> 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy (38ATP)

What factors would affect the rate of respiration in humans?

  • increase exercise...increase of respiration
  • increase temperature (such as fever)...increase respiration
  • age
  • how in shape they are

What is the relationship between photosynthesis and respiration? (draw a diagram of a plant and an animal and draw the flow of materials between them) (p232)

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MY BIOLOGY REVIEW BOOK
for
STAR TEST 2005

 

 

 

 

by

 

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Biology
: (define) Biology is the study of living things.

What is life? (list the characteristics of living things)(p16)

  • it is made of cells
  • it uses energy and has metabolism
  • it has a life span
  • it reproduces
  • it has DNA for its genetic code
  • it responds to its environment
  • it grows and develops

What is science? (define)(p3) Science is a truthfinding system that studies the natural world and bases truth on experimental data.

(explain the steps to the scientific method)(sect. 1-2)

  1. state the problems - a question is asked about something observed in nature
  2. research - all that is written and know about the question is found using library sources
  3. hypothesis - an educated guess is made to answer the question
  4. experiment - an experiment is set up to test the hypothesis
  5. data analysis - the data taken during the experiment is organized into a table, graphed, and statistics done
  6. conclusion - it is stated as to whether the data supported the hypothesis and the errors in the experiment are analyzed for improvement

Chemistry of Life:

What are the properties of water that make life possible?(2-2)

  • it is a great solvent
  • it holds its temperature (high heat capacity)
  • it floats when it freezes
  • it is both cohesive (sticks to itself) and adhesive (sticks to other things)
  • it is polar covalent

Organic Compounds (define) (2-3)

Explain 4 groups and give examples of each and their functions in living systems?

  • carbohydrates function to give energy to organisms (sugars, starches, & cellulose)
  • lipids function to store excess energy
  • proteins give structure and function to organisms and include enzymes that control chemical reactions
  • nucleic acids (DNA & RNA) control heredity

Enzymes: What are they? What do they do for cells? (2-4)

  • enzymes are proteins that control the rate of chemical reactions in the cell by the shape of their surfaces (they have "outies" where their substrates have "innies" that allow them to fit together like a lock and key)

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Cell Theory: What are the basic units of life? (7-1)

Explain 3 parts to cell theory:(7-1)

  • all organisms are made of cells
  • cells are the basic units of structure and function
  • cells come from other cells

prokaryotic cells (define & give examples)

  • primitive cells without nuclei and membrane bound organelles
  • bacteria

eukaryotic cells (define)

  • cells with a nucleus and membrane bound organelles

animal cell (diagram & label)(7-2)

plant cell (diagram & label)(7-2)

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Give the functions of these organelles:(7-2)

cell membrane - controls what enters and leaves the cell

nucleus - control center of the cell that contains DNA

mitochondria - site of cellular respiration that releases energy for the cell (often called "the powerhouse" of the cell)

chloroplasts - sites of photosynthesis in plants. These convert sunlight, CO2, & H20 into C6H12O6 & O2. These organelles are the base of the food chain

ribosomes - translate mRNA into Proteins. Sites of protein synthesis

endoplasmic reticulum (smooth) - cell membrane and lipids are made and transported here

endoplasmic reticulum (rough) - transports proteins made by the ribosomes

Golgi apparatus - refines and packages proteins for transport

cell wall - protects plant cells, gives them shape, and prevents them from lysing in hypotonic solutions

Cell Transport: (7-3)

Cell Membrane (diagram/label) - explain bi-lipid layer & channels

  • the lipid bilayer keeps cells from dissolving in water while the proteins control what attaches to and goes into and out of the cell through their channels.

Explain:

diffusion - random movement of molecules in a gas or liquid from high to low concentration.

Explain how diffusion accounts for oxygen and CO2 exchange between air & blood in lungs.

  • The concentration of oxygen is greater in the lung air than in the blood, therefore it diffuses into the blood. The carbon dioxide concentration is greater in the blood than in the lung air, therefore it diffuses into the lung air.
 

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osmosis - diffusion of water across the cell membrane

3 types solutions (what will cells do in each)

  • hypertonic solutions are concentrated in solute (like salt), so cells will shrivel in them
  • isotonic solutions have equal concentrations of solute as the cell does, so cells stay the same
  • hypotonic solutions have very little solute, so their water concentration is higher than the cell and cause the cell to swell. Animal cells will lyse while plants cells get rigid and the plant become erect.

active transport (diagram)

endocytosis (diagram)

exocytosis (diagram)

Photosynthesis: (define) (Ch 8) The process by which autotrophs (plants, algae, and some bacteria) produce food and oxygen from sunlight, carbon dioxide, and water.

What organisms do it? plants, algae, and some bacteria (bluegreen)

What is an autotroph? any organism that produces its own food (autotroph means "self feeder"

Balanced equation for it?(p206)

6CO2 + 6 H2O + sunlight ---> C6H12O6 + 6O2

What factors would affect the rate of photosynthesis? (p214)

  • temperature, availability of CO2, availability of H2O, health of the plant cell, humidity, and light intensity would affect the rate of photosynthesis

What is ATP used for by organisms? (8-1)

  • ATP is used for all cellular processes and is made both in photosynthesis and respiration

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Genetics & Cell Reproduction

How are binary fission, mitosis, & meiosis the same?

  • all 3 processes are types of cell division

How are binary fission, mitosis, & meiosis different? (use the words prokaryotic, eukaryotic, asexual, and sexual in your answer)

  • binary fission is asexual and only happens in prokaryotic cells like bacteria
  • mitosis is eukaryotic, asexual, and occurs in all cells other than sperm and eggs in our body
  • meiosis is the only sexual type of cell division and divides the number of chromosome in humans from 46 to 23

Which one of the 3 processes above get out of control and cause cancer?

  • mitosis gets out of control and the cells make undifferentiated tumor cells that become a mass that crowds out the good cells and proper body functions

What happens during each of the following DNA / RNA processes?

replication - is the process by which DNA copies itself to make an identical strand

transcription - the process by which DNA transcribes a mRNA molecule

translation - the process by which mRNA codes for protein in the form of amino acid sequences.

How are DNA & RNA alike? different?

  • DNA and RNA are both nucleic acids made of nucleotides that have Adenine, Cytosine, and Guanine in common
  • DNA is a double helix strand that has Thymine
  • RNA is a single helix strand that has Uracil

What DNA matches the codons ACA CCT CGA? tgt gga gct
What mRNA matches the codons ACA CCT CGA? ugu gga gcu

What is the relationship between DNA, genes, & chromosomes?

DNA is the molecule that makes up a gene while a chromosome is composed of 500- 5000 genes.

State Mendel's laws of:
segregation- the pair of genes that account for a trait separate during gamete formation (meiosis) with only one gene going into each gamete (sperm or egg)

independent assortment-(does this always work?) One trait does not affect the occurrence of another trait unless they are on the same chromosome. Having lobed ears and bent pinkies have nothing to do with each other because they are on different chromosomes. Blonde hair and blue eyes do occur together because this trait is coded for by genes on the same chromosome. They are linked.

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A man with blue eyes (bb) marries a brown-eyed woman from Africa (BB). What are the chances they will have a blue-eyed child? Why?

  • there is no chance of blue eyes because the woman only carries the dominant gene and will give it to the chile. B produces brown protein and overpowers the blue phenotype.

Two brown-eyed people marry and want to have children. Each of them had a blue-eyed mother. What are the chances they will have a blue-eyed child? Why?

  • Both of the parents are Bb because the mothers (bb) gave them the recessive gene to carry. Now their chances are 1/4 or 25% of having a blue-eyed child.

What are the chances the above couple will have a brown-eyed girl? Why?

  • The chances that they will have a brown eyed child is 75% or 3/4.
  • The chances they will have a girl is 50% or 1/2.
  • The chances of the 2 occurring together are: 1/2 x 3/4 = 3/8

What are the chances that 2 colorblind people will have a normal-vision child? Why?

  • It's impossible because all three X chromosomes of the parents have the defective colorblind gene on them.

Describe the relationship between the terms DNA, RNA, amino acids, proteins, and enzymes?

  • DNA makes RNA which sequences amino acid chains that can become long enough to make proteins which can them fold and become enzymes to catalyze reactions in the cell.

With only 20 amino acids, how can there be an almost infinite number of proteins?

  • the sequence of amino acids and the length of the amino acid chain can account for almost infinite numbers of proteins

Evolution

What are Darwin's 5 ideas of how evolution occurs?

  • populations overproduce offspring
  • there is variation in that population
  • there is a struggle for resources
  • only the individuals most suited to the environment survive
  • the survivors reproduce and pass on their successful genes

What 3 factors will increase variation in a population?

  • sexual reproduction
  • mutation
  • migration

As variation increases in a population, what happens to the chances the population will survive environmental change?

  • Variation in a population is a VERY GOOD THING! As variation increases so do the chances that the population will survive environmental change.

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Give an example of each of the following types of natural selection:

-directional: giraffes necks are becoming increasingly long and eagles eyes are becoming increasingly sharp (see graph)

-stabilizing: cottontail rabbits' legs have a correct length that enables them to be both swift, able to cut corners, and get under brush to hide (see graph)

-disruptional: medium size clams get eaten by predators while the smallest ones are not big enough to bother with while the largest ones are to big to pry open (see graph)

The following are types of isolation that allow evolution of new species. Please give 3 examples of each:

-geographical - populations separated by oceans, deserts, streams, rivers, or mountains

-reproductive - populations prevented from mating by behaviors, color, patterns, smell, size, or habitat they live in.

Why does natural selection work on organisms' phenotypes rather than their genotypes?

  • Natural selection only works on the way an organism's structure and function are. For instance, brown eyed people (BB or Bb) have less occurrence of cataracts than blue eyed people (bb) in natural environments. This would allow them to be more fit. Whether the brown eyed person is carrying the blue eye gene (Bb) has no affect on that individual's survival in comparison to BB individuals.

Please list 3 different events that can cause mass extinction:

  • asteroid or comet impacts

Define genetic drift:

Ecology (define) -

Biodiversity is the sum total of all the different kinds of organisms in an ecosystem. Please circle what happens to biodiversity (Increases, Decreases, or remains the Same) when:

-Man cuts down the rainforest to plant grass for cattle ( ID S)
-Geographic isolation occurs and new species form ( ID S)
-Insecticides are sprayed on a yard to eliminate pests ( ID S)
-An massive asteroid hits the Earth ( ID S)
-Introduction of a nonnative predator such as a cat ( ID S)

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Please circle what each of the following will do to population size (Increases, Decreases, or remains the Same)

-birth ( ID S) Increases
-death ( ID S) Decreases
-immigration ( ID S) Increases
-emigration ( ID S) Decreases

Circle the organic compounds involved with the carbon cycle:

  • carbohydrateslipidsnucleic acidsproteins (all have carbon in them)

Circle the organic compounds involved with the nitrogen cycle:

carbohydrateslipidsnucleic acidsproteins

Please place each of the following terms into the correct level of the following energy pyramid:

carnivores, producers, top carnivores, herbivores

What is the source for all the energy in the above food pyramid?

How are food chains and food webs different?

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Circle the body systems that are involved with getting oxygen to your cells:

nervous (controls other systems to coordinate and supply demands for oxygen) reproductivedigestiverespiratory (provides passages and absorption surfaces for oxygen and carbon dioxide to and from lungs)

skeletal (provides support for respiratory muscles) endocrinemuscular (provides movement for inhalation and exhalation of air) excretory

What is homeostasis?

  • homeostasis is keeping the internal conditions of your body THE SAME all the time. If its cold you shiver. If its hot you sweat. If water levels are low, you get thirsty and drink. If water levels are high, you urinate.

What does each of the following systems do to maintain homeostasis?

respiratory - keeps the levels of oxygen high enough and the levels of CO2 low.

excretory - keeps the levels of water at the isotonic level.

digestive - keeps levels of glucose and other nutrients high enough in your blood that your cells can live by intaking and breaking down food.

nervous - controls all the other systems to coordinate homeostasis and keep the body's cells in a constant environment.

Give at least two reasons why viruses are considered nonliving rather than living:

  • they are not made of cells
  • they do not carry on any life process except reproduction but must do it within a host cell.

How do vaccinations protect us from disease?

  • they are weakened or only parts (cell walls of bacteria or capsids of viruses) that are injected into our blood as antigens that then stimulate antibody production that makes us immune to the real thing.

Please give examples of the following in our body:

specific defenses - humoral and cell mediated are in response to specific viruses and bacteria that are nonself proteins.

nonspecific defenses - nose hairs stop all kinds of particles and so does skin (go fight win keep it all out)