Ecological Concepts Test Study Guide

CH 18

1)      What does the theme “connectedness” mean when we are studying ecosystems on Earth?  Illustrate this theme with several examples.

 

2)      What ecosystem factors are abiotic?  Biotic?

 

3)      How does water cycle between biotic and abiotic factors in ecosystems? How important is it?  What do each of the following have to do with the water cycle?  evaporation, transpiration, condensation, precipitation, and runoff

 

4)      How does carbon cycle between biotic and abiotic factors in the ecosystem?  What role does each of the following play in the carbon cycle?  photosynthesis, respiration, deforestation, and burning of fossil fuels

 

5)      How does nitrogen cycle between biotic and abiotic factors in the ecosystem?  What role does each of the following play in the nitrogen cycle?  nitrogen fixation, nitrification, ammonification, assimilation, and denitrification

 

6)      Why do ecosystems contain only 4 trophic levels?  What role do each of the following play at each trophic level?  Producers, herbivores, small carnivores, large carnivores

 

7)      How many kilograms of producers would it take to produce 97 kilograms of mountain lions living in the Santa Ana Mountains?

 

 

8)      What would happen if you removed all the decomposers in an ecosystem?  Explain your answer.

 

9)      What would happen if you removed all the large carnivores in an ecosystem?  Explain your answer.

 CH 19

10)  What can you tell by looking at a population’s age structure?

 

11)  How do exponential and logistic models of compare to each other?  When doe they happen?

 

 

12)  Why are small populations so vulnerable to extinction?

 

CH 20

13)  Compare parasitism, mutualism, and commensalism.  Give examples of each.

 

14)  Identify predator adaptations that allow them to be successful and prey adaptations that allow them to survive predator pressures.  Give examples.

 

 

15)  Distinguish between the following types of succession:  primary succession, secondary succession, climax community.  Give examples of each.  What are the roles of pioneer species?

 

CH 22

16)  What is the normal function of the stratospheric ozone layer?  What happens if it is diminished?  What has man done to diminish it?

 

17)  What role does carbon dioxide play in keeping our Earth at a livable temperature?  What is man doing that is affecting this normal role?  What are the consequences?

 

 

18)  Why is biodiversity so important to ecosystems?

 

19)  What are the major consequences of air pollution?

 

 

20)  Describe the process of biological magnification and how this relates to the energy pyramid studied at the beginning of the ecology unit.