Ch 8: Cell Reproduction
1) Why does DNA need to be neatly wrapped around associated proteins while in the nucleus of a cell?
2) Distinguish between chromatin, chromatids, centromeres, replicated chromosomes, and chromosomes.
3) Distinguish between the number of chromosomes in prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
4) How many chromosome pairs, autosomes, and sex chromosomes are in each human cell (other than sperm & eggs)?
5) What is a human karyotype? What is it used for?
6) What is the difference between diploid and haploid cells? Explain this using "n" for number of chromosomes. Explain this in terms of homologues. Explain this in terms of pairs of chromosomes.
7) Which cell in your body are diploid? Haploid?
8) How many chromosomes are in human diploid cells? Haploid?
9) If an organism other than a human had a haploid (n) number of chromosomes as 15, what would the diploid (2n) number be?
10) What is binary fission? What organisms use it? What is its advantage over mitosis?
11) Distinguish between the chromosomes of prokaryotes versus eukaryotes in terms of shape.
12) When is a bacterial (prokaryotic) cell ready to divide?
13) Which phase of the cell cycle occupies the majority of a cell's life?
14) What is the correct sequence of the cell cycle if you were to use the letters G1, G2, M, C, S?
15) What takes place in each of the interphase events: G1, S, G2?
16) What is the sequence of mitosis stages in order?
17) What nuclear/chromosome events take place during: prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase?
18) What are spindle fibers made from?
19) Please know what each event of mitosis looks like (be able to label the stages of mitosis)?
20) When human cells go through mitosis, how many chromosomes do they start and end with?
21) When human cells go through meiosis, how many chromosomes do they start and end with?
22) When human cells go through mitosis, how do the chromosomes in the 2 new cells compare in terms of genetic information?
23) Distinguish between animal cell and plant cell cytokinesis.
24) What is mitosis?
25) When in meiosis do the homologues separate?
26) Distinguish between anaphase I and anaphase II in terms of what happens with chromosomes.
27) What is crossing over, and what VERY useful thing does it accomplish for sexually reproducing species?
28) What is the purpose of meiosis?
29) What percentage of chromosomes come from each parent?
30) What would be the result of each of the following sets of sex chromosomes: XX, XY, XXY, XXX, X?
31) What stages of meiosis does independent assortment take place? Why is it so important?